Program:        Al Punto with Jorge Ramos

Content:         Interview with Dr. Tom Frieden, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Air Date:        Sunday, October 12, 2014


JR:                   Jorge Ramos

TF:                   Tom Frieden

JR:                 Dr. Frieden, thank you so much for talking to us.

TF:                 My pleasure.

JR:                 Can you give us any updates? Are you concerned right now of new cases of Ebola here in the United States?

TF:                 I really think we have to step back and let’s be really clear. Ebola is not going to spread widely in the U.S. We’ve had one patient diagnosed in the U.S. – that was in Dallas, Texas. That individual had contact with ten people and may have had contact with another 38 people. Each of those 48 contacts is being monitored each day. None of them have developed symptoms. So while the disease is taking a terrible toll in parts of Africa, it’s not going to spread widely in the U.S. You can only get Ebola from someone who’s sick with Ebola, and you can only get it by contact directly with them or their body fluids. It’s not nearly as infectious as flu or the common cold.

JR:                 Dr. Frieden, you don’t want to impose a travel ban. Why not? Don’t you think that you’re putting the whole country at risk for only 150 people coming in here every day?

TF:                 I certainly understand why people are calling for restrictions on travel. If we look back to what happened in SARS, the SARS outbreak cost the world more than 40 billion dollars. Most of those costs were travel and trade restrictions that didn’t help stop the outbreak. But even more importantly, if we were to ban travel, we would isolate these countries. If that happens, it gets harder to fight the outbreak there and —

JR:                 But isn’t that precisely —

TF:                 — if that happens —

JR:                 — what you want, Dr. Frieden?

TF:                 — the outbreak — but just, just let me finish. If that happens, the outbreak spreads more in Africa, and then actually creates more risk to us here. So we say in medicine, “above all, do no harm.” And this would do harm.

JR:                 But isn’t that precisely what you want to do? Don’t you want to isolate those countries so they can deal with these crises right now and not put the rest of the world at risk?

TF:                 No. The key thing to do is to isolate patients, not communities, not countries; to treat and isolate patients. That’s how you stop the outbreak. We’ve stopped every Ebola outbreak in history until this one, and we can still stop this one. What we have to do is actually surge in support, support these countries. But what we have done is to implement rigorous screening protocols, so every person getting on a plane from these three countries, we ensure that an approved, FDA-approved thermometer is used by a CDC-trained staff to see if they have fever. If they have fever, they don’t fly. This week, we’re starting new protocols in the U.S. where we’ll check people again to see if they’ve had contact or fever when they arrive. But if we completely shut them off, it makes it much harder to respond. You know, we really are all an interconnected world. And while we wish we could get the risk to zero here, until the outbreak stops in Africa, it won’t be zero here. But by engaging and supporting and helping, we can protect ourselves better.

JR:                 General John Kelly, chief of the U.S. Southern Command, warned that if Ebola breaks out in Central America or the Caribbean, there will be mass migration into the United States. Is he right?

TF:                 You know, I don’t think we’re going to see widespread transmission in countries that have good infection control. So having good infection control and very old practices that don’t spread the disease can allow us to contain this. Ebola doesn’t spread like flu, doesn’t spread like measles. It only spreads by direct person‑to‑person contact. But we are concerned with some of the fears and some of the behaviors that are following concerns of Ebola and may end up causing harm economically or even from a health standpoint; for example, patients not going to healthcare facilities when they need to get care.

JR:                 So I spoke with Dr. Aileen Marty from FIU and from the World Health Organization, she told me that in her opinion, Latin America is simply not ready for a crisis like this. I understand you’re going to be meeting with a Latin American president soon. What are their concerns?

TF:                 Not just for Ebola, but for any health threat, it’s important that each country has in place the core public health infrastructure. And in some countries, that’s far too weak, and that public health infrastructure means laboratories that can test for Ebola and other health threats. It means disease detectives like our epidemic intelligence service officers who can track problems, see if they’re real. If they are, stop them and prevent them. It means having surveillance or tracking systems to see if new things are emerging, and perhaps most importantly, it means having entities like the CDC and state and local health departments like public health departments around the world that can oversee and convene and respond effectively. And we know that many countries in Latin America have very strong public health systems. But all of us could always make those stronger.

JR:                 The Spanish nurse who attended the Ebola patient in Spain, of course, is now infected. In a recent poll here in the United States, 80 percent of registered nurses said that hospitals have not communicated any policy regarding potential admissions of patients infected by Ebola. Why?

TF:                 It’s very important that we use the concern for Ebola to encourage health care workers to think Ebola, particularly people working in emergency departments. If you’ve got a patient with fever, then by all means ask about travel history. And if that person has been in Guinea, Sierra Leone or Liberia in the past 21 days, immediately isolate them, take a detailed history, and if they may have Ebola, get them tested. We’ve provided checklists and algorithms for all healthcare workers working in emergency departments and similar places so that you can go through a systematic way of working as a team to identify and isolate patients if another patient were to arrive.

JR:                 Doctor, you compare what we’re going through right now with AIDS. You said that in 30 years in public health you’ve never seen anything like this. Is this just the beginning?

TF:                 You know, I think we have to put it in perspective. We’re not going to see anything like the health burden of AIDS from Ebola unless in the unlikely event it were to change or mutate. We’re not going to see a million people infected in this country. I’ll be very surprised if there is — there is spread — what we’re seeing in this country are individual patients coming in. It’s not impossible that they might infect a family member or someone who cares for them in their healthcare system if they don’t get promptly diagnosed. But we are not going to have a widespread outbreak of Ebola in the U.S. That’s not going to happen. What is reminiscent of HIV is the fear that people feel about something that’s unfamiliar. What’s also reminiscent is the frustration as a doctor of not having specific antiviral medications to confront it. And what concerns me, not about the U.S., but about Africa, is that if it spreads in Africa, it could have the health, economic and social destabilization that HIV did, not because of the number of people who are affected, which is just massively greater in HIV, but because of the destabilization that it causes for the healthcare system where doctors and nurses are afraid to come to work in parts of Africa, where patients are afraid to go in for care. So in that way, it reminds me of HIV. But the scope of the impact from the virus itself is not going to be anywhere near that order of magnitude.

JR:                 Dr. Frieden, two more questions and that’s it. Are you concerned about our southern border, that people infected with Ebola might cross from Latin America to the United States?

TF:                 The only case of Ebola diagnosed or that’s probably existed in the Western Hemisphere was the gentleman in Dallas who tragically died earlier this week. But we will continue to track the spread of the disease, and that’s why, as a world, it’s in all of our interests to have better systems in place to identify problems when they emerge and to track them carefully.

JR:                 Now, in Spain, the dog of an Ebola-infected nurse was destroyed. Animal activists were protesting this decision. Can animals be infected, and do you agree with the decision of Spanish officials that sacrificed the animal?

TF:                 While animals can be infected with Ebola, I was surprised to see that decision, and I think, you know, there are a variety of other options that might have been considered. But in fairness, this is a very new situation, and we’re all dealing with it in different ways – when Ebola comes for the first time to our country or our community, as happened in Dallas. So we’re always looking at how we can improve the response, but I think the bottom line here is that we know how Ebola spreads. Ebola spreads from someone who’s sick with Ebola and it only spreads through direct contact with them or their body fluids. We know how to stop Ebola. We know how to prevent and control Ebola, and I’m confident that for the countries that take prompt action as Nigeria did, we can stop outbreaks.

JR:                 And finally, Dr. Frieden, every time you talk, I see you’re very calm. It’s like you’re not really worried. What keeps you awake at night?

TF:                 Well, what does worry me is West Africa. In West Africa, we’re still seeing cases increasing at a very rapid rate. And that just is tragic for those countries, but it’s also a risk for the world, and that’s why it’s so important that we continue to support West Africa, because if they don’t control it, it becomes a problem for — it can become a problem for Africa more generally, and for the world for many months or even years to come. So it’s urgent that we control it there now, and speed is of the essence. And anything that we do that slows down that response actually could increase our risk.

JR:                 Dr. Frieden, thank you so much for talking to us.

TF:                 Thank you very much.

JR:                 I really appreciate it. Thank you.

Airing on Univision at 10 a.m. ET, 9 a.m. CT, 12 noon PT

For segments of the show and previous interviews, visit noticias.univision.com/al-punto or access Al Punto via the Noticias Univision app.

David Torres, Father of missing student in Iguala, Mexico

Torres is demanding answers from the Mexican government. His son is among the students that disappeared in Iguala after the local police had allegedly taken them into custody. Parents fear that the college students are dead and that they could be part of the dozens of bodies forensic authorities have recovered from the Iguala clandestine grave in the state of Guerrero.

Jorge Castañeda, Mexico’s Former Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Univision News Senior International Affairs Contributor

How is the government of President Enrique Peña Nieto handling human rights violations? Why is it taking so long to clarify what happened in Iguala? Castañeda joins Al Punto to discuss what the Mexican government has done wrong and what they need to do to avoid impunity.

José Miguel Vivanco, Executive Director, Human Rights Watch America’s Division

Human Rights Watch sent a letter to the government of Mexico in which Vivanco stated that there are few answers to the “large numbers of cases of enforced disappearances and abductions.” Vivanco comes back to Al Punto to discuss the way the administration of Enrique Peña Nieto has handled some of these cases.

Dr. Tom Frieden, Director of the U.S. Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC)

The death of the first Ebola patient in the U.S. has generated concerns about a possible outbreak in the country. Should the government ban travelers from affected countries to enter into the U.S.? Frieden joins Al Punto to discuss what the CDC is doing to prevent Ebola from spreading across the nation.

Ángel Carromero, Secretary General of the Madrid regional branch of The Spanish People’s Party Youth Organization “Nuevas Generaciones” and Author of “Muerte Bajo Sospecha”

Carromero was sentenced to jail by the Cuban government after he was accused of causing the death of political dissident Oswaldo Paya. Carromero assures the death was the responsibility of the Cuban government and comes to Al Punto to discuss the incident and his new book “Muerte Bajo Sospecha.”

Univision’s fourth-annual Education Week is kicking off on Saturday, October 4th and culminates on Sunday, October 12th. This initiative is part of Univision’s ongoing commitment to education, and will focus on key topics such as early childhood learning, the new Common Core standards and college-readiness.

Throughout the week, viewers will discover a new face to the Education team. We are excited to announce Lucia Burga as our new Education reporter. Until now, Lucia has been a Senior Producer / Correspondent for Noticiero Univision Network News based at the network’s headquarters in Miami. She has produced the live Network Primetime Newscast, Noticiero Univision, Despierta America, Al Punto con Jorge Ramos, breaking coverage of ”La Misa del Papa” and reported on national and international news events.

Lucia has also anchored network morning news weekend briefs and has covered the Republican and Democratic national conventions, Hurricane Katrina, Mexico’s Presidential Elections and three World Cups in 2006, 2010 and 2014. Lucia joined Univision in 1999 from Miami’s CBS-WFOR 4, where she had been an intern for the news segment “Consumer Reports with Al Sunshine”. Upon arriving to Univision, she worked as production assistant for the network’s news magazine primetime show, “Aqui y Ahora.” She is a native of Lima, Peru, and is fluent in Spanish, English and Portuguese.

Airing on Univision at 10 a.m. ET, 9 a.m. CT, 12 noon PT

For segments of the show and previous interviews, visit noticias.univision.com/al-punto or access Al Punto via the Noticias Univision app.

Dr. Juan Rivera, Univision’s Chief Medical Correspondent


Aileen M. Marty, M.D., Professor of Infectious Diseases in the Department of Medicine at the FIU Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine and Director, FIU Health Travel Medicine Program and Vaccine Clinic


Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister of Israel


Juan Manuel Santos, President of Colombia


Bill de Blasio, Mayor of New York City


Fernando M. Reimers, Ford Foundation Professor of Practice in International Education and Director of Global Education and of International Education Policy at Harvard University


William Levy, Cuban-American Actor


@AlPunto @jorgeramosnews @UniNoticias #AlPunto


From left to right: Tomas Ocaña, Teresa Rodríguez, Gerardo Reyes, María Elena Salinas and Margarita Rabin celebrate Univision’s Emmy win. (Photo: Mark Bryan-Brown)

Univision News Accepts Award in the Outstanding Investigative Journalism in Spanish Category for “El Chapo: El Eterno Fugitivo” Documentary

NEW YORKOCTOBER 1, 2014 – Univision News, part of Univision Communications Inc. (UCI), celebrates an important win in the category of Outstanding Investigative Journalism in Spanish. The “Aquí y Ahora” one-hour special “El Chapo: El Eterno Fugitivo” (El Chapo: The Eternal Fugitive), netted the award for Univision. The National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (NATAS) presented the prize at the 35th Annual News & Documentary Emmy® Awards on Tuesday, September 30 at Frederick P. Rose Hall, Home of Jazz at Lincoln Center in New York City.

“This is a reward for the perseverance of a full team at Univision who had the support of Isaac Lee and Daniel Coronell - both have always believed that investigative journalism is the type of journalism that makes a difference,” said Gerardo Reyes, director for Univision Investiga.

Produced by the Univision News investigative unit, “El Chapo: El Eterno Fugitivo” tracked the infamous Joaquín Guzmán Loera, better known as “El Chapo Guzmán” (Shorty Guzmán), top leader of the Sinaloa cartel of Mexico, the organization that dominates cocaine, heroin, marijuana and methamphetamine trade in the Western Hemisphere. During the eight months of thorough investigation, Univision reporters toured Mexico, Spain, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia and the U.S. interviewing more than one hundred people on both sides of the law and getting unprecedented access to many official documents in an effort to construct a clearer profile of the ruthless, enigmatic drug lord. The special aired on Sunday November 3, 2013 (7 p.m. ET/PT) and set record breaking audience levels with 1.6 million Adults 18-49, a (+88%) gain compared to previous telecasts*.

The 35th Annual News & Documentary Emmy® Awards ceremony, which honored programming distributed during 2013, was attended by more than 1,000 television and news media industry executives, news and documentary producers and journalists. Awards were presented in 43 categories, including the first-ever categories reserved for news & documentary programming in Spanish.

*The Nielsen Company

NPM (10/31/2013-11/27/2013 vs. 10/25/2012-11/21/2012) Sun 7pm-8pm, Live+SD

NSI, (10/25/12-11/21/12, 10/31/13-11/27/13) Program

The Committee to Protect Journalists today announced that Univision and Fusion’s Jorge Ramos will be honored at the 2014 International Press Freedom Awards. He will be recognized with the Burton Benjamin Memorial Award for lifetime achievement in the cause of press freedom. Ramos currently anchors “AMERICA with Jorge Ramos” in English on Fusion as well as Univision’s evening newscast “Noticiero Univision” and Sunday public affairs program “Al Punto” in Spanish.

The other 2014 awardees include Burmese journalist Aung Zaw, founder and editor-in-chief of The Irrawaddy, which was branded an “enemy of the state” by the former military regime and still comes under pressure from the current Burmese government; Siamak Ghaderi, Iranian freelance journalist and former editor and reporter for the Islamic Republic’s official news agency IRNA, who was released in July after spending four years in prison; Mikhail Zygar, editor-in-chief for the Russian independent TV channel Dozhd, which provides a rare alternative to Kremlin-controlled federal stations; and Ferial Haffajee, editor-in-chief of City Press in South Africa, who has faced fierce criticism and threats of violence against herself and her staff for critical stories published under her leadership.

All of the winners will be honored at CPJ’s annual award and benefit dinner in New York City on November 25, 2014. Christiane Amanpour, anchor and chief international correspondent for CNN and a CPJ board member, will host the event. Alberto Ibargüen, president of the Knight Foundation, is the dinner chairman.

Full release from CPJ here.

Jorge Ramos is one of the most highly respected journalists in the United States and Latin American. He has covered five wars and has reported many of the most important news stories of the last two decades, including the fall of the Berlin Wall, the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and Hurricane Katrina. He has also covered numerous international summits, guerrilla movements in Chiapas and Central America, elections throughout Central and South America, the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI and many other highly relevant events. Ramos has interviewed some of the world’s most influential political leaders and writers of the 21st century.

He is the author of elven books and bestsellers and writes a weekly column for more than 40 newspapers in the United States and Latin America distributed by The New York Times Syndicate. He also provides commentary for three daily radio shows for the Univision Radio network and collaborates with www.Univision.com. In addition, Ramos has been instrumental in promoting literacy among Latinos; in 2002, he created “Despierta Leyendo” (Wake Up Reading), the first book club in the history of Hispanic television.

Ramos has received eight Emmy Awards for excellence in journalism, in addition to the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences’ Lifetime Achievement Award, which was bestowed upon him in 2012. That same year, Ramos also won the John F. Hogan Distinguished Service Award from the Radio Television Digital News Association, as well as the Sol Taishoff Award for Excellence, given by the National Press Foundation. In 2011, the Club de Periodistas de México (Journalists’ Club of Mexico) gave him the Premio Internacional de Periodismo (International Journalism Award) for his interviews with the Mexican presidential candidates, and in 2008, the Commonwealth Club of California recognized him with the Distinguished Citizen Award for being one of the outstanding individuals who embody the American Dream as an immigrant to the United States. In 2004, Ramos was honored with the Chairman’s Humanitarian Award from the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute for the promotion of Latino issues, as well as with the American Association of Publishers’ Honors Award. In 2003, he was awarded the David Brinkley Award for Excellence in Communication. Ramos was also honored in 2002 with the Ruben Salazar Award by the National Council of La Raza for his positive portrayal of Latinos. In 2001, he received the prestigious Maria Moors Cabot Journalism Award from Columbia University.

Ramos has been called “Star newscaster of Hispanic TV” and “Hispanic TV’s No. 1 correspondent and key to a huge voting bloc” by The Wall Street Journal. Time magazine included him in the list of “the 25 most influential Hispanics in the United States” and Newsweek in its list of 50 political and media figures. A survey conducted by the Pew Hispanic Center found that Ramos is the second most recognized Latino leader in the country. Latino Leaders magazine chose him as one of “The Ten Most Admired Latinos” and “101 Top Leaders of the Latino Community in the U.S.”

Ramos holds a Master’s Degree in International Studies from the University of Miami and a Bachelor’s Degree in Communication from Ibero-American University in Mexico City. He also completed a post-graduate course in broadcast journalism at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA).  In 2007, the University of Richmond awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree.

Airing on Univision at 10 a.m. ET, 9 a.m. CT, 12 noon PT

For segments of the show and previous interviews, visit noticias.univision.com/al-punto or access Al Punto via the Noticias Univision app.

Juan Orlando Hernández, President of Honduras – @JuanOrlandoH

Univision News Correspondent, Blanca Rosa Vilchez, talks to the President of Honduras. They discuss the reasons why drug trafficking and gangs have become a threat to Honduras. President Hernández explains why he thinks the international community needs to pay close attention to the current situation in Central America. Hernández also talks about the policies his administration is implementing to ease the exodus of children to the U.S. and to help the families that have been deported back to Honduras.

Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Prize in Literature

Ramos traveled to Madrid for an exclusive interview with Mario Vargas Llosa. They discuss the ruthless regime of Rafael Trujillo, one of Latin America’s most brutal dictators, who controlled the Dominican Republic for more than 30 years. Vargas Llosa also talks about democracy in the region and why he thinks power brings out the worst in people.

Ramfis Domínguez Trujillo, grandson of Dictator Rafael Trujillo

Trujillo speaks with Univision News Anchor, Teresa Rodríguez. They talk about his grandfather’s presidency, his family and the accusations of corruption and human rights violations during his dictatorship. 

Wilmer Valderrama, Actor and Activist – @WValderrama

Valderrama comes back to Al Punto to discuss the need to take the Latino vote to the next level. Valderrama also talks about how to gain a more just representation in Congress.

@AlPunto @jorgeramosnews @UniNoticias #AlPunto


New America Media, Profile, Peter Schurmann

Traduccion al español

BERKELEY, Calif. – When Ana Aceves was 12 years old, she sat on her parents’ front porch in the Central Valley city of Merced, California, looked up into the night sky and had an “out of body experience.” She saw herself on her porch, then her city, and state, planet, and finally the stars.

It was then the energetic 23-year-old UC Berkeley senior says she knew exactly what she wanted to do. “I ran into the house and told my mom I wanted to be an astrologer,” she explained with a loud chuckle. “I think you mean an astronomer,” her mother corrected.

Today Aceves, the child of Mexican immigrants and the first in her family to attend college, is double majoring in Astrophysics and Media Studies. She’s the first to admit it’s an unlikely combination. Indeed, she is the only student on this sprawling campus of some 30,000 undergraduates with that dual focus.

Thanks to a prestigious fellowship from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), she is now using it to help to expand science programming for one of the nation’s largest Spanish-language broadcasters, Univision.

Connecting the dots

Aceves’ parents met in Merced, though both emigrated from the same area of Michoacan, Mexico to Central California in the mid-1980s. Neither finished college, though Aceves says before leaving Mexico her father began a degree in math and physics, later dropping out to support his parents and siblings.

Her mother began learning English at a local community college, graduating with an Associates Degree in Early Childhood Education the same year Aceves graduated high school.

“When my [younger] brother was born, he had a lot of health complications,” she said. “My mother got really frustrated because she couldn’t communicate with the nurses, so she resolved to learn English.” There’s a picture of Aceves together with her mom in their graduation caps and gowns sitting on the mantle in her parents’ home. “I’m very proud of her … she’s my inspiration.”

But despite the family’s closeness, Aceves realized early on her opportunities in Merced were limited and that to succeed she would “have to go elsewhere.”

After debating between UCLA and Berkeley, she chose the latter, falling in love with the campus and because of the shorter travel time to visit home. Once there, she opted on Media Studies as a backup major, recognizing that math wasn’t her strong suit. “I knew I was going to combine them,” she said of her degree choices, “I just wasn’t sure how.”

It was during a study abroad program in Canberra, Australia in the spring semester of 2013 that she first began to figure that out. She enrolled in a science communications class that involved organizing a conference around a specific topic – that year they chose the future of climate and space exploration. Aceves volunteered to emcee and gave a talk on planetary exploration.

“By the end … I realized I really like talking about other people’s research,” she noted. “It hit me that this is what I want to do.” After coming home, she took it one step further, asking herself: “What if I do it in Spanish?”

Working at Univision

The answer came in April, when she received the AAAS Mass Media Fellowship for Scientists and Engineers, a 10-week program that pairs students with media outlets nationwide. This year was the first time that two positions were given to fellows working in Spanish media.

Aceves was the only undergraduate to be awarded the fellowship, and learned of her acceptance on her brother’s birthday. “I just screamed. It was just this amazing thing and it seemed like it was made for me,” she said.

At Univison’s headquarters in Miami, Aceves worked on the station’s website scripting and producing science videos from the ground up. Of the more than 400 reporters in the building, she says, she was the only one doing science.

“There is so little in Spanish that addresses basic science questions,” she noted, adding that when she pitched her first idea to her editor on why the sky is blue, she had to explain why in fact it is blue to her editor before she agreed.

Aceves produced three videos over the course of ten weeks, and is now working as a freelancer for Univison and Fusion, a joint venture between Univision and ABC targeting Hispanic millennials. She’s currently working on a video about space travel and Mars exploration.

Get rid of the novela

At 12-years-old, right around the time Aceves had her “epiphany,” her family’s cable subscription was cut. Her grades “skyrocketed” as a result, so her parents decided to keep the cable off, leaving Aceves with few channel choices, one of which was Univision.

“I watched Univision all day every day because that was the only channel we had,” she recalled. “I remember every Saturday morning Bill Nye the Science Guy would come on for half an hour in Spanish, and I would get up to watch.”

It was one of the only science programs available in Spanish for an aspiring young scientist like Aceves, who points to role models like José Hernández, the former astronaut also raised in the Central Valley by migrant parents.

But Aceves says she never thought about her Hispanic identity or the fact that there are relatively few Hispanics in science until recently, when she perused the names and faces of others in her program. “There was no one that looked like me,” she remembers.

Indeed, according to the National Science Foundation, Hispanics account for only 10 percent of all STEM-related degrees. Census data from 2011 show Hispanics make up only 11 percent of the STEM workforce. The number of Latinas within these groups is even smaller.

It’s something Aceves is hoping to change.

“My biggest dream … would be to have my own show in Spanish on prime time,” she said, noting her friends sometimes jokingly call her Carla Sagana, after the famed host of the show Cosmos, Carl Sagan. “Get rid of the novella, and put me in there. Let me reach out to a Spanish speaking audience, and encourage other women to pursue the sciences.”